Dec 032014
 

Typhoid fever.

Lancet. 2014 Oct 21;

Authors: Wain J, Hendriksen RS, Mikoleit ML, Keddy KH, Ochiai RL

Abstract
Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures.

PMID: 25458731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Sep 072014
 
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Efficacy of β blockers in patients with heart failure plus atrial fibrillation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis.

Lancet. 2014 Sep 2;

Authors: Kotecha D, Holmes J, Krum H, Altman DG, Manzano L, Cleland JG, Lip GY, Coats AJ, Andersson B, Kirchhof P, von Lueder TG, Wedel H, Rosano G, Shibata MC, Rigby A, Flather MD, on behalf of the Beta-Blockers in Heart Failure Collaborative Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and heart failure often coexist, causing substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. β blockers are indicated in patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; however, the efficacy of these drugs in patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation is uncertain. We therefore meta-analysed individual-patient data to assess the efficacy of β blockers in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm compared with atrial fibrillation.
METHODS: We extracted individual-patient data from ten randomised controlled trials of the comparison of β blockers versus placebo in heart failure. The presence of sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation was ascertained from the baseline electrocardiograph. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Analysis was by intention to treat. Outcome data were meta-analysed with an adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. The study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT0083244, and PROSPERO, number CRD42014010012.
FINDINGS: 18 254 patients were assessed, and of these 13 946 (76%) had sinus rhythm and 3066 (17%) had atrial fibrillation at baseline. Crude death rates over a mean follow-up of 1·5 years (SD 1·1) were 16% (2237 of 13 945) in patients with sinus rhythm and 21% (633 of 3064) in patients with atrial fibrillation. β-blocker therapy led to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality in patients with sinus rhythm (hazard ratio 0·73, 0·67-0·80; p<0·001), but not in patients with atrial fibrillation (0·97, 0·83-1·14; p=0·73), with a significant p value for interaction of baseline rhythm (p=0·002). The lack of efficacy for the primary outcome was noted in all subgroups of atrial fibrillation, including age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, heart rate, and baseline medical therapy.
INTERPRETATION: Based on our findings, β blockers should not be used preferentially over other rate-control medications and not regarded as standard therapy to improve prognosis in patients with concomitant heart failure and atrial fibrillation.
FUNDING: Menarini Farmaceutica Internazionale (administrative support grant).

PMID: 25193873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Jun 042014
 
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Haemodynamic-guided fluid administration for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: the POSEIDON randomised controlled trial.

Lancet. 2014 May 24;383(9931):1814-23

Authors: Brar SS, Aharonian V, Mansukhani P, Moore N, Shen AY, Jorgensen M, Dua A, Short L, Kane K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The administration of intravenous fluid remains the cornerstone treatment for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. However, no well-defined protocols exist to guide fluid administration in this treatment. We aimed to establish the efficacy of a new fluid protocol to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.
METHODS: In this randomised, parallel-group, comparator-controlled, single-blind phase 3 trial, we assessed the efficacy of a new fluid protocol based on the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. The primary outcome was the occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, which was defined as a greater than 25% or greater than 0·5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration. Between Oct 10, 2010, and July 17, 2012, 396 patients aged 18 years or older undergoing cardiac catheterisation with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) or less and one or more of several risk factors (diabetes mellitus, history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or age older than 75 years) were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided volume expansion (n=196) or the control group (n=200) who received a standard fluid administration protocol. Four computer-generated concealed randomisation schedules, each with permuted block sizes of 4, were used for randomisation, and participants were allocated to the next sequential randomisation number by sealed opaque envelopes. Patients and laboratory personnel were masked to treatment assignment, but the physicians who did the procedures were not masked. Both groups received intravenous 0·9% sodium chloride at 3 mL/kg for 1 h before cardiac catheterisation. Analyses were by intention to treat. Adverse events were assessed at 30 days and 6 months and all such events were classified by staff who were masked to treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01218828.
FINDINGS: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury occurred less frequently in patients in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided group (6·7% [12/178]) than in the control group (16·3% [28/172]; relative risk 0·41, 95% CI 0·22-0·79; p=0·005). Hydration treatment was terminated prematurely because of shortness of breath in three patients in each group.
INTERPRETATION: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided fluid administration seems to be safe and effective in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation.
FUNDING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California regional research committee grant.

PMID: 24856027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Jun 032014
 
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Systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lancet. 2014 May 29;

Authors: Lisnevskaia L, Murphy G, Isenberg D

Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a remarkable and challenging disorder. Its diversity of clinical features is matched by the complexity of the factors (genetic, hormonal, and environmental) that cause it, and the array of autoantibodies with which it is associated. In this Seminar we reflect on changes in its classification criteria; consider aspects of its more serious clinical expression; and provide a brief review of its aetiopathogenesis, major complications, coping strategies, and conventional treatment. Increased understanding of the cells and molecules involved in the development of the diseases has encouraged the identification of new, better targeted biological approaches to its treatment. The precise role of these newer therapies remains to be established.

PMID: 24881804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Apr 292014
 
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Diagnosis of reversible causes of coma.

Lancet. 2014 Apr 17;

Authors: Edlow JA, Rabinstein A, Traub SJ, Wijdicks EF

Abstract
Because coma has many causes, physicians must develop a structured, algorithmic approach to diagnose and treat reversible causes rapidly. The three main mechanisms of coma are structural brain lesions, diffuse neuronal dysfunction, and, rarely, psychiatric causes. The first priority is to stabilise the patient by treatment of life-threatening conditions, then to use the history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to identify structural causes and diagnose treatable disorders. Some patients have a clear diagnosis. In those who do not, the first decision is whether brain imaging is needed. Imaging should be done in post-traumatic coma or when structural brain lesions are probable or possible causes. Patients who do not undergo imaging should be reassessed regularly. If CT is non-diagnostic, a checklist should be used use to indicate whether advanced imaging is needed or evidence is present of a treatable poisoning or infection, seizures including non-convulsive status epilepticus, endocrinopathy, or thiamine deficiency.

PMID: 24767707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Apr 052014
 

Human schistosomiasis.

Lancet. 2014 Mar 31;

Authors: Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, King CH

Abstract
Human schistosomiasis-or bilharzia-is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp. Adult schistosome worms colonise human blood vessels for years, successfully evading the immune system while excreting hundreds to thousands of eggs daily, which must either leave the body in excreta or become trapped in nearby tissues. Trapped eggs induce a distinct immune-mediated granulomatous response that causes local and systemic pathological effects ranging from anaemia, growth stunting, impaired cognition, and decreased physical fitness, to organ-specific effects such as severe hepatosplenism, periportal fibrosis with portal hypertension, and urogenital inflammation and scarring. At present, preventive public health measures in endemic regions consist of treatment once every 1 or 2 years with the isoquinolinone drug, praziquantel, to suppress morbidity. In some locations, elimination of transmission is now the goal; however, more sensitive diagnostics are needed in both the field and clinics, and integrated environmental and health-care management will be needed to ensure elimination.

PMID: 24698483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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