Jan 072015
 

Droxidopa: A Review of Its Use in Symptomatic Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension.

Drugs. 2015 Jan 6;

Authors: Keating GM

Abstract
The norepinephrine prodrug droxidopa (NORTHERA™) is approved in the US for the treatment of orthostatic dizziness, lightheadedness, or the 'feeling that you are about to black out' in adults with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension associated with primary autonomic failure (e.g. Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure), dopamine β-hydroxylase deficiency or nondiabetic autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of droxidopa in symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Oral droxidopa was effective in the shorter-term treatment of patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, with improvements seen in symptoms, the impact of symptoms on daily activities and standing systolic blood pressure. More data are needed to confirm the longer-term efficacy of droxidopa. Droxidopa was generally well tolerated, although patients should be monitored for supine hypertension.

PMID: 25559422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Nov 282014
 

Ferric Carboxymaltose: A Review of Its Use in Iron Deficiency.

Drugs. 2014 Nov 27;

Authors: Keating GM

Abstract
Ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject(®), Injectafer(®)) is an intravenous iron preparation approved in numerous countries for the treatment of iron deficiency. A single high dose of ferric carboxymaltose (up to 750 mg of iron in the US and 1,000 mg of iron in the EU) can be infused in a short time frame (15 min). Consequently, fewer doses of ferric carboxymaltose may be needed to replenish iron stores compared with some other intravenous iron preparations (e.g. iron sucrose). Ferric carboxymaltose improved self-reported patient global assessment, New York Heart Association functional class and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials (FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF). In other randomized controlled trials, ferric carboxymaltose replenished iron stores and corrected anaemia in various populations with iron-deficiency anaemia, including patients with chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease or heavy uterine bleeding, postpartum iron-deficiency anaemia and perioperative anaemia. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was generally well tolerated, with a low risk of hypersensitivity reactions. It was generally better tolerated than oral ferrous sulfate, mainly reflecting a lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects. The most common laboratory abnormality seen in ferric carboxymaltose recipients was transient, asymptomatic hypophosphataemia. The higher acquisition cost of ferric carboxymaltose appeared to be offset by lower costs for other items, with the potential for cost savings. In conclusion, ferric carboxymaltose is an important option for the treatment of iron deficiency.

PMID: 25428711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Nov 052014
 
Related Articles

Dulaglutide: First Global Approval.

Drugs. 2014 Nov 4;

Authors: Sanford M

Abstract
Dulaglutide (Trulicity™) is a long-acting, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that has been developed by Eli Lilly and Company for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It consists of a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-protected GLP-1 analogue covalently linked to a human IgG4-Fc heavy chain by a small peptide linker. The subcutaneous formulation is approved for use in type 2 diabetes in the US, has been recommended for approval in the EU in this indication, and is under regulatory review in other countries. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of subcutaneous dulaglutide leading to this first approval for type 2 diabetes.

PMID: 25367716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 302014
 
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Riociguat: A Review of Its Use in Patients with Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension or Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Drugs. 2014 Oct 29;

Authors: Garnock-Jones KP

Abstract
Riociguat (Adempas(®)), a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is a new, first-in-class drug approved for the treatment of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) [inoperable or persistent/recurrent following surgery] or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It has been designated an orphan medicine by the European Medicines Agency and the US FDA. This article reviews the available pharmacological properties of oral riociguat and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in adults with CTEPH or PAH. Riociguat is effective and well tolerated in patients with inoperable CTEPH or persistent/recurrent CTEPH following pulmonary endarterectomy, and in patients with PAH. It has a positive result on exercise capacity and pulmonary haemodynamics, and improves WHO functional class. Most adverse events can be attributed to the vasodilatory mechanism of riociguat; however, there is a potential for serious bleeding and fetal harm, and riociguat use is contraindicated in pregnant patients. Pulmonary endarterectomy remains the first treatment of choice for CTEPH, as it is potentially curative. Head-to-head trials comparing riociguat with the approved phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in patients with PAH would be of value for the placement of riociguat in the management of this disease. Riociguat is a promising addition to the treatment options for patients with CTEPH or PAH.

PMID: 25352393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 302014
 
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Rifaximin: A Review of Its Use in Reducing Recurrence of Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy Episodes.

Drugs. 2014 Oct 29;

Authors: Scott LJ

Abstract
Oral rifaximin 550 mg (Refero(®); Targaxan(®); Tixteller(®); Xifaxan(®)) twice daily, either alone or more commonly with medicines containing lactulose, is approved in several countries, including the UK, EU and USA, for use in adults with liver disease to reduce the recurrence of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Rifaximin is a broad-spectrum antibacterial that acts locally in the gut to reduce intestinal flora, including ammonia-producing species, with hyperammonaemia considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of HE. In a 6-month, multinational trial in patients with liver disease, rifaximin 550 mg twice daily (± lactulose) was an effective and well tolerated treatment for reducing the recurrence of HE episodes. At study end, rifaximin therapy significantly prolonged the time to the first breakthrough HE episode compared with placebo (± lactulose), irrespective of geographical region or baseline patient and disease characteristics. Rifaximin treatment also significantly reduced HE-related hospitalizations and improved health-related quality of life compared with placebo. Furthermore, the efficacy of rifaximin with or without lactulose in reducing the recurrence of overt HE episodes was maintained after up to 2.5 years of treatment, with no new safety signals arising during this period. This article reviews the pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of rifaximin 550 mg twice daily in reducing the recurrence of overt HE episodes in adults with liver disease.

PMID: 25352391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 152014
 

Clevidipine: A Review of Its Use for Managing Blood Pressure in Perioperative and Intensive Care Settings.

Drugs. 2014 Oct 14;

Authors: Keating GM

Abstract
The ultrashort-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist clevidipine (Cleviprex(®)) has a rapid onset and offset of effect and reduces blood pressure (BP) by decreasing arteriolar resistance without affecting venous capacitance vessels. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of intravenous clevidipine when used to manage BP in perioperative and intensive care settings, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Intravenous clevidipine effectively treated preoperative and postoperative hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, according to the results of the randomized, multicentre, double-blind, phase III ESCAPE-1 and ESCAPE-2 trials. The randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III ECLIPSE trials indicated that in terms of keeping systolic BP within the target range, clevidipine was more effective than nitroglycerin or sodium nitroprusside perioperatively and had similar efficacy to nicardipine postoperatively in cardiac surgery patients. In small, double-blind trials in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, perioperative clevidipine was noninferior to nitroglycerin, and postoperative clevidipine had similar efficacy to sodium nitroprusside. Noncomparative studies demonstrated that clevidipine provided rapid BP control in patients with acute neurological injuries (including intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage and acute ischaemic stroke), and was not associated with 'overshoot' in the vast majority of patients. Intravenous clevidipine was generally well tolerated and was usually associated with no reflex tachycardia or only very modest increases in heart rate. In conclusion, intravenous clevidipine is a valuable agent for the management of BP in perioperative and intensive care settings.

PMID: 25312594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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