Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants versus Standard Pharmacological Treatment in Acute Medically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Drugs. 2012 Aug 9;
Authors: Albertsen IE, Larsen TB, Rasmussen LH, Overvad TF, Lip GY
Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common and potentially avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized for acute medical illness. Objective: Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulant (OAC) drugs versus standard pharmacological drugs and/or placebo in prevention of VTE in acute medically ill patients. Methods: PubMed.org and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched to identify studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new OAC versus the standard pharmacological treatment and/or placebo in the prevention of VTE in medically ill patients. Relative risks (RR), weighted means and 95% CIs were calculated. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated using Chi2 and I2 statistics. Two studies were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome in both studies was the composite of VTE-related death, symptomatic non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and asymptomatic proximal DVT. Both studies compared a factor (F)Xa inhibitor with enoxaparin in standard short-term thromboprophylaxis followed by a period where the FXa inhibitor was compared with placebo as prolonged thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients. The primary major safety outcome in both studies was a composite of treatment-related major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. A total of 14?629 patients were randomized. Results: Compared with subjects treated with enoxaparin followed by placebo, the RR of the primary outcome during the prolonged treatment period was 0.79 (95% CI 0.66, 0.94), the RR for the primary outcome during the first short-term treatment period was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81, 1.31). For major bleeding during the prolonged treatment period, the RR was 2.69 (95% CI 1.65, 4.39) for patients treated with an FXa inhibitor compared with enoxaparin/placebo. For major bleeding during the shorter treatment period, the RR was 2.01 (95% CI 1.10, 3.65) in favour of enoxaparin. Conclusion: In acute medically ill patients, prolonged thromboprophylaxis with an oral FXa inhibitor is more protective than regular short-term treatment with enoxaparin. However, treatment with FXa inhibitors is significantly associated with major bleeding, both in long- and short-term treatment compared with enoxaparin.
PMID: 22876779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Link to Article at PubMed