Oct 242014
 
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Red cell distribution width to platelet ratio: New and promising prognostic marker in acute pancreatitis.

World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14450-4

Authors: Cetinkaya E, Senol K, Saylam B, Tez M

Abstract
AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of red cell distribution width (RDW) to platelet ratio (RPR) to predict in-hospital mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP).
METHODS: Between January 2010 and June 2012, 102 patients with AP were recruited to the study. In this retrospective cohort study, for all subjects, demographic data on hospital admission, AP etiology, co-morbid diseases, organ failure assessment, laboratory parameters and length of hospital stay were examined. Additionally, we used a non-invasive prediction method in addition to the RPR to evaluate the disease severity. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the impact of RPR on hospital admission to predict mortality.
RESULTS: The male-female ratio (59/43) was 1.37 with a median age of 56.5 years (17-89 years). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, RDW and RPR were presented as independent and significant variables on admission to predict mortality. The RPR obtained on hospital admission was persistently higher among non-survivors than among survivors (P < 0.0001). The median RPR was 0.000087 in the non-survivor group and 0.000058 in the survivor group. RPR with a cutoff value of 0.000067 presented an area under the curve of 0.783 (95%CI: 0.688-0.878) in receiver operating characteristic curves and could predict the mortality of approximately 80% of the patients.
CONCLUSION: We identified RPR as a valuable, novel laboratory test to predict mortality in AP.

PMID: 25339831 [PubMed - in process]

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Oct 242014
 
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Pulmonary Effects of IV Injection of Crushed Oral Tablets: "Excipient Lung Disease"

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Nov;203(5):W506-W515

Authors: Nguyen VT, Chan ES, Chou SH, Godwin JD, Fligner CL, Schmidt RA, Pipavath SN

Abstract
OBJECTIVE. When crushed oral tablets are injected IV, their filler material (excipient) can induce a potentially fatal foreign-body reaction in pulmonary arterioles, presenting as dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension with centrilobular nodules on CT. We will describe the imaging and pathologic features of "excipient lung disease." CONCLUSION. The radiologist has a critical role in recognizing and reporting excipient lung disease because the referring clinician may be unaware of the patient's IV drug abuse.

PMID: 25341165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 242014
 
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Updated Imaging Nomenclature for Acute Pancreatitis.

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Nov;203(5):W464-W469

Authors: Murphy KP, O'Connor OJ, Maher MM

Abstract
KEY POINTS 1. CT is used to confirm the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis when the diagnosis is in doubt and to differentiate acute interstitial pancreatitis from necrotizing pancreatitis, which is a key element of the updated Atlanta nomenclature. The acute interstitial variety accounts for 90-95% of cases, with acute necrotizing pancreatitis accounting for the remaining cases. 2. Necrosis due to acute pancreatitis is best assessed on IV contrast-enhanced CT performed 40 seconds after injection. Peripancreatic necrosis is a subtype of necrotizing pancreatitis in which tissue death occurs in peripancreatic tissues. This is seen in isolation in 20% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. 3. Simple fluid collections associated with acute interstitial pancreatitis are subdivided chronologically. A collection observed within approximately 4 weeks of acute pancreatitis onset is termed an "acute peripancreatic fluid collection (APFC)." A collection older than 4 weeks should have a thin wall and is termed a "pseudocyst." Both APFCs and pseudocysts can be infected or sterile. 4. Fluid collections associated with necrotizing pancreatitis are labeled on the basis of age and the presence of a capsule. Within 4 weeks of acute pancreatitis onset, a fluid collection associated with necrotizing pancreatitis is termed an "acute necrotic collection (ANC)" whereas an older collection is termed an area of "walled-off necrosis (WON)" if it has a perceptible wall on CT. The term "pseudocyst" is not used in the setting of necrotizing pancreatitis collections. Although an ANC and a (WON can be infected or sterile, infection is far more likely compared with acute interstitial pancreatitis collections. 5. The severity of acute pancreatitis is graded on the basis of the presence of acute complications or organ failure. Mild acute pancreatitis has neither acute complications nor organ failure. Moderate-severity acute pancreatitis is associated with acute complications or organ failure lasting fewer than 48 hours. Severe acute pancreatitis is characterized by single- or multiorgan failure persisting for greater than 48 hours.

PMID: 25341160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 242014
 
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JOURNAL CLUB: Requiring Clinical Justification to Override Repeat Imaging Decision Support: Impact on CT Use.

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Nov;203(5):W482-W490

Authors: O'Connor SD, Sodickson AD, Ip IK, Raja AS, Healey MJ, Schneider LI, Khorasani R

Abstract
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of requiring clinical justification to override decision support alerts on repeat use of CT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. This before and after intervention study was conducted at a 793-bed tertiary hospital with computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. When a CT order is placed, decision support alerts the orderer if the patient's same body part has undergone CT within the past 90 days. The study cohort included all 28,420 CT orders triggering a repeat alert in 2010. The intervention required clinical justification, selected from a predetermined menu, to override repeat CT decision support alerts to place a CT order; otherwise the order could not be placed and was dropped. The primary outcome, dropped repeat CT orders, was analyzed using three methods: chi-square tests to compare proportions dropped before and after intervention; multiple logistic regression tests to control for orderer, care setting, and patient factors; and statistical process control for temporal trends. RESULTS. The repeat CT order drop rate had an absolute increase of 1.4%; 6.1% (682/11,230) before to 7.5% (1290/17,190) after intervention, which was a 23% relative change (7.5 - 6.1) / 6.1 × 100 = 23%; p < 0.0001). Orders were dropped more often after intervention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; p < 0.0001). Statistical control analysis supported the association between the increase in the drop rate with intervention rather than underlying trends. CONCLUSION. Adding a requirement for clinical justification to override alerts modestly but significantly improves the impact of repeat CT decision support (23% relative change), with the overall effect of preventing one in 13 repeat CT orders.

PMID: 25341162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 242014
 
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Control of Ebola Virus Disease - Firestone District, Liberia, 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Oct 24;63(42):959-965

Authors: Reaves EJ, Mabande LG, Thoroughman DA, Arwady MA, Montgomery JM

Abstract
On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

PMID: 25340914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Oct 232014
 
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Longer hospital stay is associated with higher rates of tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality within 12 months after discharge in a referral hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:409

Authors: Zetola NM, Macesic N, Modongo C, Shin S, Ncube R, Collman RG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a problem in resource-limited settings. However, the degree of TB exposure and the intermediate- and long-term morbidity and mortality of hospital-associated TB is unclear. In this study we determined: 1) the nature, patterns and intensity of TB exposure occurring in the context of current TB cohorting practices in medical centre with a high prevalence of TB and HIV; 2) the one-year TB incidence after discharge; and 3) one-year TB-related mortality after hospital discharge.
METHODS: Factors leading to nosocomial TB exposure were collected daily over a 3-month period. Patients were followed for 1-year after discharge. TB incidence and mortality were calculated and logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with TB incidence and mortality during follow up.
RESULTS: 1,094 patients were admitted to the medical wards between May 01 and July 31, 2010. HIV was confirmed in 690/1,094 (63.1%) of them. A total of 215/1,094 (19.7%) patients were diagnosed with PTB and 178/1,094 (16.3%) patients died during the course of their hospitalization; 12/178 (6.7%) patients died from TB-related complications. Eventually, 916 (83.7%) patients were discharged and followed for one year after it. Of these, 51 (5.6%) were diagnosed with PTB during the year of follow up (annual TB rate of 3,712 cases per 100,000 person per year). Overall, 57/916 (6.2%) patients died during the follow up period, of whom 26/57 (45.6%) died from confirmed TB. One-year TB incidence rate and TB-associated mortality were associated with the number of days that the patient remained hospitalized, the number of days spent in the cohorting bay (regardless of whether the patient was eventually diagnosed with TB or not), and the number and proximity to TB index cases. There was no difference in the performance of each of these 3 measurements of nosocomial TB exposure for the prediction of one-year TB incidence.
CONCLUSION: Substantial TB exposure, particularly among HIV-infected patients, occurs in nosocomial settings despite implementation of cohorting measures. Nosocomial TB exposure is strongly associated with one-year TB incidence and TB-related mortality. Further studies are needed to identify strategies to reduce such exposure among susceptible patients.

PMID: 25047744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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